The first spring years of the melon fly coincides with the formation of the first fruits, although the females are capable of reproduction already on the 10th day of their life. Fruit fly Management TYPICAL LIFE CYCLE Fusarium wilt distances within a short time; exceptional observa-tions showed a Bactrocera sp. LIFE CYCLE Development period from egg to adult ranges from 12 to 28 days. The melon fruit fly remains active throughout the year on one or the other host. The melonworm can complete its life cycle in about 30 days. Studies on the biology of the melon fruit fly, Dacus ciliatus Loew (Diptera:Trypanaeidae). When the larvae are already entering the active phase of life, more noticeable traces of the lesion are manifested - the fruits begin to rot, and this becomes noticeable quite quickly, 4-5 days after the larvae exit the eggs. Usually one egg is laid in one fruit. However, the melon fly was unable to complete its life cycle successfully on chayote showing that factors inhibiting larval development in melon fly could be attributed to biochemical constituents. I have written briefly about this subject in another article but since then, I have been bombarded with additional questions and requests for more pictures so I decided to dedicate an entire article to this subject. Microscopic footage showing fruit fly anatomy and its life-cycle. Outside of malathion protein bait sprays and GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait, little information is available on other insecticides. The fruit fly life cycle is a very interesting subject and is a necessary one to review if you have a few buzzing around your house. Wings have the usual diptera shape. The first spring years of the melon fly coincides with the formation of the first fruits, although the females are capable of reproduction already on the 10th day of their life. Even in the south of Asia you can find a melon fly. Throughout the distribution area, it is struggling with variable success, and a person does not always triumph in it. If there are many cracks, several different flies can lay eggs in a large fruit. The mean incubation period varied from 1.7±0.12 days in 2002 and 1.4±0.16 days in 2003 at temperature range from 31.9 – 32.2°C in 2002 and 27.3 – 30.8°C while, relative humidity was 56.7 – 62.8% during 2002 and 60.6–81.2% during 2003. The main danger of the melon fly is its high fecundity. They damage the fetus from the inside (eating the pulp and seeds), making it unfit for consumption, inhibit the formation of seeds. During the hot and dry season, the flies take shelter under humid and shady places and feed on honeydew of aphids infesting the fruit trees. The main pests are melon fly larvae. The first signs of infection with fruit parasites is the appearance of many small spots or tubercles on them, which are formed in places where females bite the skin. They are major pests of beans, bittermelon, winter melon, cucumbers, eggplant, green beans, hyotan, luffa, melons, peppers, pumpkins, squashes, togan, tomatoes, watermelon, and zucchini. Leaving the shell, they go deep into the fetus and begin to actively eat. This species of flies is extremely fertile. Cool temperatures slow the development cycle, while warm temperatures speed it up. Melon fly damages melons, melon, watermelon, cucumbers, pumpkin. A slightly pronounced taper is noticeable: to the posterior end, the larva can be significantly expanded. The larval phase of the insect lasts from 1 to 2 weeks, in autumn - up to 2.5 weeks. The melon fly was first found in California in 1956 and has been captured sporadically over the years, but all infestations have been successfully eradicated. The maggots will then metamorphosis to pupae. On the head of the insect has a pair of short antennae. Larvae go through three instars feeding for about 4-7 days. Studies are currently being conducted on the efficacy of various foliar insecticides to Mediterranean fruit fly, melon fly, Malaysian fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly. Females are able to make small holes on the rind of the fruit or on the shoots, from which after some time the juice begins to stand out, which they drink with the help of the proboscis. The spots and tubercles have a characteristic brown hue. Eggs can also be laid into flowers, stems as well as exposed roots. (2000) reported 31.27% damage on bitter gourd and 28.55% on watermelon in India. Pilot project implementation sites in Mekong region. Males do not have such sharp âteethâ on the proboscis to make holes, but they are able to find holes made by females and drink juice from them with the help of their long proboscis. The female may lay as many as 1,000 eggs. It is rare when the pupae of this pest are more than 8 mm. The color of the larvae is dirty yellow or off white. It is present throughout the year in southern Florida, where it is limited mostly by availability of host plants. During the larval stage, up to 3 larvae of the larva occur. Nutrition of adult insects is carried out by sucking the juices of plants on which they parasitize. Further, it is recommended to repeat the treatment after 2 weeks. MELON FLY . The lower developmental threshold for melon fruit fly was recorded as 8.1° C (Keck, 1951). The combination of proper melon farming techniques using chemicals is the only effective method for successfully combating this pest. It disperses northward annually, usually arriving in northern Florida in June and other southeastern states in July, where no more than three generations normally occur before cold weather kills the host plants. Life History Spraying with drugs is done twice a season. There are total larval periods was 5.9±0.979 and 5.19 ± 0.245 days while, pupal period was 7.3 ± 0.23 and 7.03 ± 0.245 days during both the years in the month of June and July. They are major pests of beans, bitter melon, wax gourd, cucumbers, edible gourds, eggplant, green beans, hyotan, luffa, melons, peppers, pumpkins, squashes, togan, tomatoes, watermelon, and zucchini. About nine days are required for … An earlier planting is also recommended so that the fruits have time to form and âgrowâ with thick skin before the first summer of melon flies. The head and body of the insect have slightly different shades. When the time of pupation comes, the larva leaves the fetus and burrows into the ground to a depth of 13-15 cm. The maggots (larvae) are creamy-white, legless and attain a length of 10 mm. The fly life cycle starts from the egg, to the larva, pupa and finally the adult. Pupation occurs in the soil. Melon Fly Life Cycle. For the season is replaced by about 3 generations. The spring years coincide with the formation of fruits in the spring. How to determine the appearance of a pest in the beds, Is it possible to eat melons infected with a melon fly, Homemade cucumbers on the balcony and loggia, Ogurdynya: reviews, varieties, planting and care, Processing potatoes before planting from wireworms, Pumpkin Baby, Honey Baby: description and photo, Tomato Beef Big: characteristics and description of the variety, Tomato Fatima: variety description, photos, reviews, Tomato Larisa F1: reviews, photos, productivity, Varieties of tomatoes that do not require pinching. In addition, the use of insecticides such as Decis or Arrivo is recommended as a preventive measure. The body length of the insect is about 0.6-0.7 cm, the wingspan is about 0.5 cm. The melon fly (Bactocera cucurbitae) belongs to the Tephritidae family of fruit flies. A major route by which this pest may spread in trade or transport is through eggs and larvae hidden in fruiting bodies. Within 2-4 days, they hatch into larvae, usually maggots, which are very active. During this time, one female is able to lay more than a hundred eggs. An option for such prevention is falling asleep on the beds with a layer of wood ash. Studies on culture of melon fly indicated the absence of plant traits resisting oviposition on chayote fruit. In Asia, it is recorded from Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, They are common in Lebanon, Iran and Iraq, Syria. The melon fly can attack flowers, stem, root tissue, and fruit. Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett -- Tephritidae (Contacts)GO TO ALL: Bio-Control Cases Native to the Indo-Malayan region, the melon fly was first recorded in Hawaii in 1897. The mature larva emerges from the fruit, drops to the ground, and forms a tan to dark brown puparium. Life cycles of fruit flies . Melon flies use at least 125 host plants. During the severe winter months, they hide and huddle together under dried leaves of bushes and trees. In addition to traditional melons, watermelons and pumpkins, this pest can threaten about a hundred other plants. The time from egg to adult emergence varies, and is generally about 2–3 weeks, and longer over winter. The eyes located at the edges of the head are located at a relatively large distance from each other, in contrast to the ordinary fly, in which they practically converge in the upper part of the head. The pupa matures for about 3 weeks, after which an adult insect is formed from it, which is ready for reproduction in 1-2 days. The Baluchistan Melon Fly (Myiopardalis pardalina) is a major pest of melons and other cucurbits. Life cycle. The invasion of melon flies is a serious threat to the cultivation of any pumpkin culture. In Hawaii, it has caused serious damaged to melon, cucumber and tomato crops. The melon fly. The life cycle from egg to adult requires 14-27 days. On them four transverse stripes of yellow color are visible. Outwardly, the melon fly is an unremarkable insect, of which many fly in the summer garden. Melon fly is found in the tropical regions of Asia, a portion of east Africa, and on some Pacific islands, including Hawaii, USA. Chemical prophylaxis of melon is also used. For these purposes, Zenith means (in concentrations of 0.25 liters per 10 liters of water) or Rapira (2 liters of solution per 1 ha) are used. Life Cycle. Problems in the designation of type of life cycle and the evolutionary significance of the life cycle … If infected fruits are found, they should be picked and destroyed as soon as possible (best burned). The eggs of the melon fly are slender, white and measure 1/12 inch in length. Pupae are dark yellow, almost brown. The female fly lays its eggs under the skin of the watermelon. Life Cycle A female melon fly usually lays eggs under the skin of host fruit; however, in its favored hosts in the family Cucurbitaceae, eggs may also be laid into flowers, stems, and exposed roots. Apparently t… Young or newly formed fruits, whose skin is still not dense, are especially vulnerable to flies. The body of the fly is covered with dense hairs of small length. The summer period stretches in time to 30 days. Fruit fly development (life cycle) depends on temperature. There are total larval periods was 5.9±0.979 and 5.19 ± 0.245 days while, pupal period was 7. It is distributed throughout the Middle East and western Asia from Israel to India. Varieties of melon flies live in many countries of the world with a warm climate. And after 2-4 days they hatch into larvae (maggots) and start to feed on the fruit flesh. The mean Pre-oviposition period13.5±1.5 and oviposition period 18.0±6 days while, mean mating period (3±1hrs), fecundity 80.0±20 eggs/life cycle and incubation period of eggs varied from 1.25±0.25 days was observed of cucurbit fruit fly. At the same time, the nutritional pattern of insects is very interesting and depends on the sex of an adult. Adult leaf miners are small yellow and black coloured flies, at most only several millimetres long. If the lesion has become widespread, it is recommended to treat the plants with an insecticide, for example, Karbofos or Fufanon. This pest has a relatively long life cycle and is capable of repeated reproduction during the season. Egg:Melonworm moths deposit oval, flattened eggs in small clusters, often averaging two to six overlapping eggs per egg mass. The duration of total life cycle was 15.5 ± 1.952 and 13.66 ± 2.482 days during 2002 and 2003 in June and July. Illegal movement of fruit This insect is able to destroy from 70 to 100% of the melon crop. The larva eats melon juice and any kind of fetal tissue: pulp, fiber or seeds. Fruit fly life cycle. El Nahal AKM, Azab AK, Swailem SM, 1971. ... fruit sucking moth, are responsible for the deterioration of fruit quality and the reduction of shelf life (Veeresh, 1989). The average longevity of male was 12.74 ± 2.83 and 13.09 ± 2.37 days whereas, that of female was 15.03 ± 3.14 and 15.56 ± 2.67 days during both the years in June and July. Over the entire warm season, about 3 generations … A photo of a melon fly is shown below. First things first, let’s learn about its life cycle. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 54:231-241. EGGS. By that time, the soil temperature is warming up to +20 degrees Celsius. When using these drugs, you must strictly follow the instructions. Melon fly is a serious pest of most gourds. The female lays eggs under the skin of the fruit of the host plant. The life expectancy of adults is about two months. The nutrition of adult individuals has almost no effect on plant life, since the amount of juice they consume is negligible. BIOLOGY. Singh et al. It has a 30 day life cycle when conditions are optimal. During this time, one female is able to lay more than a hundred eggs. Mostly, these are climatic zones of subtropics and mild temperate climate. Prior to its invasion, cucurbit crops were widely grown for local consumption and some were exported to California. The egg of a melon fly is pure white and is 2 mm long; They lay their eggs in tender plant tissue such as terminals, unopened flowers, young stems, roots, and seedlings; They feed on stem shoots and buds of squashes and melons; The female melon flies can lay up to 1,000 eggs; The life cycle from egg to adult requires 14-27 days An insignificant amount of the vital products of the larvae, as well as the flesh damaged by them, cause mild diarrhea. It is distributed in Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Kyrgyzstan. As a rule, a plant loses much more fluid from various mechanical damages. The mean incubation period varied from 1.7±0.12 days in 2002 and 1.4±0.16 days in 2003 at temperature range from 31.9 – 32.2°C in 2002 and 27.3 – 30.8°C while, relative humidity was 56.7 – 62.8% during 2002 and 60.6–81.2% during 2003. The appearance of flies on the territory of Ukraine, Moldova, southern Russia. The plants are first treated in early spring, immediately after the formation of the first leaves, the second treatment is performed after the formation of the first loops. The Middle East also suffers from a population of these flies. Quarantine laws aimed at preventing the entry and establishment of melon flies in areas where it does not occur often reduces the export potential of locally grown crops. This is a medium-sized fly, mainly fawn yellow, less often brownish. Larvae emerge from the eggs within 48 hours. Usually the color of the head is brighter. In some cases, backfilling of melons helps with deterrents - ash, tobacco dust and others. When the adult females feed or lay eggs, they bore a hole using their toothed ovipositor, usually in the upper side of the leaf. The life expectancy of adults is about two months. Since the pupae âmatureâ in the soil, weeding and loosening of the soil should be carried out regularly in order to remove the pupae to the surface, where they will be destroyed by birds or other insects. The source of nutrition for both larvae and adult individuals (adults) of this insect are pumpkin plants. The lower and upper developmental thresholds for eggs were 11.4 and 36.4° C (Messenger and Flitters, … In some regions of Transcaucasia, the original method is used - burying fruits that have reached 3-5 cm in diameter in the ground, later melons form under a layer of soil and flies cannot reach them. Large fruits, as a rule, do not attract flies. common name: melon fly scientific name: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae) Introduction - Synonyms - Distribution - Description - Life History - Damage - Hosts - Management - Selected References Introduction (Back to Top). Information on life cycles given here is derived from laboratory-raised fruit flies grown at 77°F … Chipku-Pheromone Eco trap with Melon Fly Bactocera Cucurbitae Lure: Melon flies have more than 80 hosts. An effective remedy is the planting of frightening plants near the melon - castor oil plants or calendula. Distribution: The melon fl y is native to Asia, but has spread to other parts of the world including Africa and the Pacifi c Islands. Development from egg to adult under summer conditions requires about 16 days. Melon fly is one of the most unpleasant pests of any gourds. The significant differences were observed in the life cycle of the pest when reared on bitter gourd, bottle gourd and watermelon. Insect prophylaxis is standard. After introduction, it can easily disperse due to its high reproductive potential, high biotic potential (short life cycle of 3-5 weeks, up to 10 generations of offspring per year), and a rapid dispersal ability. Melon fly has been recovered on several occasions in California, and although it has not become established in the western hemisphere, the tropical and subtropical regions would be suitable habitat. In total, up to 3 generations of flies can appear during the season. Despite the fact that for a person a melon fly is not dangerous, there are still fruits that are affected by it, but it is not worth it. Laboratory studies were conducted to study the comparative biology of fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae in different cucurbitaceous crops viz. Their size is about a third smaller than the size of an âadultâ larva. This happens if there are sufficiently deep cracks on their skin. The African melon fly is widespread in the countries of the Mediterranean basin, the Caucasus and Central Asia. Eggs of the Baluchistan melon fly (BMF) are able to survive harsh winter conditions. Melon fly prefers such cucurbits as watermelon, cantaloupe, pumpkin, squash, ... these plants form an unstable resource to which the biology and life cycle of D. cucurbitae are well adapted. bitter gourd, bottle gourd and watermelon. Insect larvae have the usual shape for flies. Larvae can cause a significant decrease in crop quality in any area where they appear. Here she "terrorizes" the agriculture of India and Pakistan. In some cases, infection of large fruits can occur. Oviposition response of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) to different phenolic compounds Sharma, R. and Sohal, S. K. ABSTRACT The oviposition deterrent effects of four phenolic compounds (quercetin, rutin, gallic acid and tannic acid) were investigated against the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae. The insect has a wide distribution range. The lifespan of an adult fly varies depending on many factors, and can be as long as 5–15 months. Usually, they lay their eggs as soon as the temperature rises above + 20-22 Â° C. Females lay eggs in the fruit to a depth of 2-3 mm. The melon fruit fly has been reported to infest 95% of bitter gourd fruits in Papua (New Guinea), and 90% snake gourd and 60 to 87% pumpkin fruits in Solomon Islands (Hollingsworth et al., 1997). When the larva reaches a size of about 1 cm, it pupates. moving up to 200 km. In more severe cases, slight dehydration of the body is observed. The life cycle of a leaf miner has the following stages: egg, three larval instars, a pupal instar and the adult fly. Their body is cylindrical. El-Sabah B, Fetoh A, Afia YI, 2004. 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