Solutions to Political Polarization in America - April 2015. . Self-categorization theory stems from social identity theory, which holds that conformity stems from psychological processes; that is, being a member of a group is defined as the subjective perception of the self as a member of a specific category. Moreover, computer-mediated discussions often fail to result in a group consensus, or lead to less satisfaction with the consensus that was reached, compared to groups operating in a natural environment. RESULTS. The findings suggest that group size has a significant effect on group polarization. The researchers found that people tended to believe that research that supported their original views had been better conducted and was more convincing than research that didn't. Juries display group polarization as well. In 11 of the 14 states, murder rates were lower after adoption of the death penalty. The presence of a member with an extreme viewpoint or attitude does not further polarize the group. The phenomenon has shown that after participating in a discussion group, members tend to advocate more extreme positions and call for riskier courses of action than individuals who did not participate in any such discussion. [29] The results of the study supported their hypothesis in that participants converged on a norm polarized toward risk on risky items and toward caution on cautious items. Group polarization is a phenomenon studied in the social sciences in which the decisions and opinions of individuals become more extreme when they are in group settings. [11] For those issues where polarization is found, mere thinking about the issue, without contemplating new evidence, produces the effect. The persuasive arguments interpretation holds that individuals become more convinced of their views when they hear novel arguments in support of their position. In particular, their punitive-damage awards tend to be far higher than the preferred award of the median member, before deliberation. A defining aspect of polarization, though not its only facet, is a bimodal distribution around conflicting points of view or philosophies. The phenomenon also holds that a group's attitudetoward a situation may change in the sense that the individuals' initial attitudes have strengthened and intensified after group discussion, … The result of thread length, however, is mixed: the effect of thread length depends on the degree … These explanations were gradually narrowed down and grouped together until two primary mechanisms remained, social comparison and informational influence. Start studying Chapter 8: Group Influence/Group Polarization. [clarification needed] Stoner (1968) found that a decision is impacted by the values behind that circumstances of the decision. The researchers initially measured the strength with which people held their position. found individual preferences to be irrelevant; it is differences of opinion which will cause the shift. [4], Informational influence, or persuasive arguments theory, has also been used to explain group polarization, and is most recognized by psychologists today. Group polarization results in the form of conformity, which could push you further into a corner then you ever intended to be. (2002), group polarization was found to occur with online (computer-mediated) discussions. Later, both the pro- and anti-capital punishment people were put into small groups and shown one of two cards, each containing a statement about the results of a research project written on it. Before studying the nanowire polarizer, we will check our ana… [28] Accordingly, proponents of the self-categorization model hold that group polarization occurs because individuals identify with a particular group and conform to a prototypical group position that is more extreme than the group mean. [12] This apparent tendency is of interest not only to psychologists, but also to sociologists,[13] and philosophers.[14]. Normative Influence. More so, situations that normally favor the cautious alternative increased cautious shifts. The new job would pay more to start and would offer the possibility of a share in the owner- ship if the company survived the competition of the larger firms. In‐group polarization does not affect gender attitudes, however. 2020; (ISSN: 1091 ... Neurons were polarization sensitive in large parts of the virtual sky that in some cells extended to the horizon in all directions. [6], In a study conducted by Sia et al. This suggests that a general phenomenon of choice-shifts exists apart from only risk-related decisions. [40], CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Dynamic Debates: An analysis of group polarization over time on Twitter", "Disagreement, Dogmatism, and Belief Polarization", "Risky and cautious shifts in group decisions: the influence of widely held values", "Knowing what to think by knowing who you are: Self-categorization and the nature of norm formation, conformity and group polarization", "Deliberative Trouble? In their experiment, participants gave pre-test, post-test, and group consensus recommendations on three choice dilemma item-types (risky, neutral, or cautious). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Why groups go to extremes", "Polarization and Conflict: Theoretical and Empirical Issues", Mass murder of German POWs after World War II (1940s), Allegations of CIA assistance to Osama bin Laden, Free energy suppression conspiracy theory, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Group_polarization&oldid=997380619, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 06:21. In social psychology, group polarization refers to the tendency for a group to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of its members. Group polarization focuses on how groups usually make decisions that are more extreme than the original thoughts and views of the individual team members. [35], Group polarization has been widely discussed in terms of political behavior (see political polarization). The result is a biased discussion in which the group has no opportunity to consider all the facts, because the members are not bringing them up. discussion leads a group to adopt attitudes or actions that are more extreme than the initial attitudes or actions of the individual group members [20] The study found that situations that normally favor the more risky alternative increased risky shifts. Risky and cautious shifts are both a part of a more generalized idea known as group-induced attitude polarization. He is assured of a lifetime job with a modest, though adequate, salary and liberal pension benefits upon retirement. ", Participants were then asked to imagine that they were advising Mr. A. [18] These results should be understood in the context of several problems in the implementation of the study, including the fact the researchers changed the scaling of the outcome of the variable, so measuring attitude change was impossible, and measured polarization using a subjective assessment of attitude change and not a direct measure of how much change had occurred. (1972) interaction within a group and differences of opinion are necessary for group polarization to take place. Group polarization can be observed at political conventions, when platforms of the party are supported by individuals who, when not in a group, would decline to support them. The theory posits that each group member enters the discussion aware of a set of items of information or arguments favoring both sides of the issue, but lean toward that side that boasts the greater amount of information. The discovery of the risky shift was considered surprising and counter-intuitive, especially since earlier work in the 1920s and 1930s by Allport and other researchers suggested that individuals made more extreme decisions than did groups… A study that assessed whether Federal district court judges behaved differently when they sat alone, or in small groups, demonstrated that those judges who sat alone took extreme action 35% of the time, whereas judges who sat in a group of three took extreme action 65% of the time. [29] Another similar study found that in-group prototypes become more polarized as the group becomes more extreme in the social context. Isenberg concluded that there was substantial evidence that both effects were operating simultaneously, and that persuasive arguments theory operated when social comparison did not, and vice versa. [6], Research has suggested that well-established groups suffer less from polarization, as do groups discussing problems that are well known to them. The social comparison theory, or normative influence theory, has been widely used to explain group polarization. The concept of group polarization states that a person tends to shift to a more extreme opinion when in a group setting than what his/her original opinion might have been. Peer influence on risk taking, risk preference, and risky decision making in adolescence and adulthood: An experimental study. ____The chances are 1 in 10 that the company will prove financially sound. These findings also show the importance of previous group shifts. The study of group polarization can be traced back to an unpublished 1961 Master's thesis by MIT student James Stoner, who observed the so-called "risky shift". Also, Moscovici et al. Lord et al. Gender differences in risk taking: A meta-analysis. Brauer, M., Judd, C. M., & Gliner, M. D. (1995). Group polarization refers to attitude change on the individual level due to the influence of the group, and choice shift refers to the outcome of that attitude change; namely, the difference between the average group members' pre-group discussion attitudes and the outcome of the group decision.[7]. The most popular of these theories is self-categorization theory. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Normative Influence states that people will alter their opinions in a group setting in order to fit in or be looked upon more favorably by their peers. Very simply, group polarization happens because you take the most extreme part of a bunch of people, add that all up, and get something more extreme. In particular, this study found that group discussions, conducted when discussants are in a distributed (cannot see one another) or anonymous (cannot identify one another) environment, can lead to even higher levels of group polarization compared to traditional meetings. Results support the conflict‐group polarization model and indicate that out‐group polarization has the most powerful effect on both gendered family role attitudes and policy attitudes for men and women. Referent informational influence theory explains group polarization as conformity, through self‐categorization, to a local in‐group norm which is polarized as a result of the in‐group being located towards an extreme of the salient comparative context or social frame of reference. The process of characterizing a social polarization index using extensions of the axioms presented in DER to the multi-group case is not straight-forward. If the group … ____Place a check here if you think Mr. A should not take the new job no matter what the probabilities. These more extreme decisions are towards greater risk if individuals' initial tendencies are to be risky and towards greater caution if individuals' initial tendencies are to be cautious. Learn group polarization with free interactive flashcards. [23], The discovery of the risky shift was considered surprising and counter-intuitive, especially since earlier work in the 1920s and 1930s by Allport and other researchers suggested that individuals made more extreme decisions than did groups, leading to the expectation that groups would make decisions that would conform to the average risk level of its members. As long as the group of individuals begins with the same fundamental opinion on the topic and a consistent dialogue is kept going, group polarization can occur. The study found that like-minded individuals strengthened group identity whereas replies between different-minded individuals reinforced a split in affiliation. [4] Furthermore, research suggests that it is not simply the sharing of information that predicts group polarization. While attending a convention, Mr. A is offered a job with a small, newly founded company which has a highly uncertain future. [5] Moreover, in recent years, the Internet and online social media have also presented opportunities to observe group polarization and compile new research. According to the idea of group polarization, if an individual holds an opinion about a topic, that opinion will likely be enhanced after a discussion on the topic with a group. According to the social comparison interpretation, group polarization occurs as a result of individuals' desire to gain acceptance and be perceived in a favorable way by their group. There is a substantial amount of empirical evidence demonstrating the phenomenon of group polarization. "Found in many settings, it involves like-minded people going to extremes. . These theories for group polarization can be broken down further into two main categories: normative influence and informative influence. ____The chances are 9 in 10 that the company will prove financially sound. [16] Whichever position they held initially, people tended to hold that position more strongly after reading research that supported it. PsycholoGenie will help you understand the various nuances of … [17] When people had read both the research that supported their views and the research that did not, they tended to hold their original attitudes more strongly than before they received that information. Researchers have identified an increase in affective polarization among the United States electorate, and report that hostility and discrimination towards the opposing political party has increased dramatically over time. . Some of these items or arguments are shared among the members while some items are unshared, in which all but one member has considered these arguments before. [30] This further lends support to the self-categorization explanation of group polarization. Group difference in polarization score, according to overall level of emotional intensity (panel A) and emotional intensity of the most emotionally intense comment (panel B). Group discussion shifts the weight of evidence as each group member expresses their arguments, shedding light onto a number of different positions and ideas. The researchers hypothesized that an ingroup confronted by a risky outgroup will polarize toward caution, an ingroup confronted by a caution outgroup will polarize toward risk, and an ingroup in the middle of the social frame of reference, confronted by both risky and cautious outgroups, will not polarize but will converge on its pre-test mean. Later, they would be asked to join a group to reassess their choices. This research supports the deterrent effect of the death penalty. This tendency also occurred when individual judgments were collected after the group discussion and even when the individual post-discussion measures were delayed two to six weeks. Indicated by shifts in the mean value, initial studies using this method revealed that group decisions tended to be relatively riskier than those that were made by individuals. It would read as following, "Please check the lowest probability that you would consider acceptable to make it worthwhile for Mr. A to take the new job.". The group polarization literature is an encouraging example of how theoretically and practically meaningful phenomena in social psychology can be defined and explored through empirical research: The participants' degree of commitment to their original positions were re-measured, and the participants were asked about the quality of the research and the effect the research had on their beliefs. In social psychology, group polarization refers to the tendency for a group to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of its members. Support for the self-categorization theory, which explains group polarization as conformity to a polarized norm, was found by Hogg, Turner, and Davidson in 1990. Group polarization as a concept first came to light in an unpublished study by MIT student James Stoner. It helps account for many terrible things, including terrorism, stoning, and “mobbing” in … [20] The seemingly counter-intuitive findings of Stoner led to a spurt of research around the risky shift, which was originally thought to be a special case exception to the standard decision-making practice. In doing so, individuals support the group's beliefs while still presenting themselves as admirable group "leaders". According to Moscovici et al. [25] Studies regarding the theory have demonstrated that normative influence is more likely with judgmental issues, a group goal of harmony, person-oriented group members, and public responses. our multi-group context, one can obtain an axiomatically characterized nat-ural extension of the income polarization index presented in DER. For example, students who do not belong to fraternities and sororities tend to be more liberal politically, and this difference increases over the course of their college careers. Stoner, J. [34], However, some research suggests that important differences arise in measuring group polarization in laboratory versus field experiments. Group polarization has been reported to occur during wartime and other times of conflict and helps to account partially for violent behavior and conflict. Since human beings are social creatures the allure to be accepted and belonged to a group is very strong which can result in group polarization. An empirical test of the referent informational influence analysis of group polarization is reported. [21] While an extremist in the group may sway opinion, the shift can only occur with sufficient and proper interaction within the group. [31] Similar to the social media platforms, video streaming platforms like YouTube are forming groups unconsciously through intelligent algorithm seeking for extreme contents. [2], Group polarization is an important phenomenon in social psychology and is observable in many social contexts. Developmental Psychology, 41, 625-635. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 367-383. Though group polarization deals mainly with risk-involving decisions and/or opinions, discussion-induced shifts have been shown to occur on several non-risk-involving levels. Group polarization is the phenomenon that when placed in group situations, people will make decisions and form opinions to more of an extreme than when they are in individual situations. leadership style and time constraints Group polarization results in: the tendency for group members who were initially more cautious to become significantly less. In 8 of the 10 pairs, murder rates were higher in the state with capital punishment. In surveys carried in 2014, Pew researchers found that 36 percent of Republicans and 27 percent of Democrats responded that the opposing … ____The chances are 5 in 10 that the company will prove financially sound. 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